THE UNFOLDING JOURNEY is a new blog written in association with Legacy Genealogy.

This blog is a blend of disciplines that reveal the rich texture of culture and history that surrounded your ancestors' lives, as well as your own. We will take you beyond just the names, dates, and places to give you the "back story" for the reasons your ancestors thought what they thought and did what they did. We invite you to also visit us at the Legacy Genealogy facebook page at http://facebook.com/legacygenealogy

Monday, October 31, 2011

The Civil War History of the 57th Indiana (#6 of 52)

Arriving At Shiloh
“Our division was on the road early on Sunday morning, April 6th. The troops were marching slowly along, talking, joking, and laughing, when the distant boom of cannon came floating on the morning breeze across the great valley of the Tennessee. In a few moments it was repeated. No one thought of a battle at that time. Our colonel supposed it was gun-boats practicing on the river. But as we advanced, they continued to increase; and about noon a courier arrived, and informed Gen. Wood that the enemy had attacked our forces at Pittsburg Landing, and that a hard battle was going on.
“From the continued roar of artillery, it was evident that the battle was raging fiercely. For some time we had been able to distinguish the musketry from the heavy guns. Just before dark the gun-boats went into action, and we could plainly hear their heavy broadsides above the field-guns and the rattle of small arms. Minutes seemed almost like hours, so terrible was the suspense. We knew it must have been a surprise by the enemy, for surely our commanders would not have given battle with their forces divided.
“We were ordered to march in profound silence. No man was allowed to speak above a whisper. Long before midnight the mutterings of distant thunder were heard; the lightning’s vivid glare disclosed the weary column, and the dashing rain increased the difficulties of the night march. Artillery horses gave out, and men were required to assist in helping forward with the guns.
“With the dawn of the day the battle again commenced; and we were now eager enough to hear the noises very distinctly. Soon after starting we came up with the trains of the other divisions, struggling along through the mud. Teamsters were coaxing, cursing, and whipping their mules. Some men were stuck in the mud, and were carrying their baggage on their shoulders.
“We hurried forward and reached the town of Savannah at 9 o’clock. The town was filled with wounded, and a constant procession came up from the hospital boats at the landing. Many were carried on litters, and others were walking around with heads and arms bandaged. Rumors were flying thick and fast. Here we learned of the almost total destruction of Gen. Grant’s army, and the timely arrival of troops from Buell’s command. Another rumor was that regiments, when they arrived on the field, were sent in singly, and soon cut to pieces by superior numbers of the rebels.
“Finally we reached the landing and the welcoming shouts of the wounded, and the thousands of stragglers who had taken refuge beyond the reach of danger. ‘This way with that regiment!’. . . ‘Hurry up there’. . . ‘What are you waiting for?’ and such like expressions could be heard on all sides.
“Hundreds of wounded were coming from the field; cavalry and artillery reserves were forming, and hurrying off to the scene of the action. Shouts and cheers from the front, mingled with the noise of battle, told that the enemy were being repulsed and driven back. On every hand there was constant battle and confusion.”

(Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, April 6, 1862)
Excerpts taken from “Annals of the Fifty-Seventh Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry: Marches, Battles, and Incidents of Army Life” written by Asbury L. Kerwood immediately after the war.

Sunday, October 30, 2011

What We Learned About Ourselves From Orson Welles' 1938 "The War of the Worlds"

On Halloween Eve, October 30, 1938, CBS radio broadcast an episode of its program “Mercury Theatre”. That night’s production was an adaptation of H.G. Wells’ novel “The War of the Worlds.” This version was written by Howard Koch and Orson Welles, and directed by Welles. It was written and performed to sound like a real news story about an invasion from Mars.
This famous story is actually quite simple. An aggressive Martian life form comes to Earth to conquer it. Humans have no defense and are on the verge of defeat when the aliens succumb to the Earth’s microorganisms for which they are unprepared. The Martians all die and the Earth is saved.
The beauty of the story is more in its telling. Welles’ radio play was nestled in between the original Wells story (1898) and two motion pictures, one in 1953 and the other Spielberg’s 2005 special effects version.
The Radio Play
The plot of the Mercury Theatre radio play tells of a huge flaming metallic object crashing near Grover’s Mill, New Jersey. This is followed shortly by alien creatures climbing out of the craft. A pitched battle between National Guardsmen and aliens looked as if the invaders would be defeated. But then an alien “tripod fighting machine” emerges, quickly killing six thousand soldiers, then marches on toward New York City. Poison gas is released by the advancing Martians. Casualty and damage reports continue coming in.
At this point in the program, an actor who is supposed to be the Secretary of the Interior is interviewed. There was great effort to make his voice sound like President Roosevelt, and many listeners believed it was FDR.
The character played by Orson Welles makes his way on foot to New York where he meets a man planning to fight the aliens from underground in a guerilla style war. Most of the city is in flames when all of a sudden the aliens’ machines begin to falter. Their occupants have been killed by unseen microbes that are lethal to them, but do not affect humans because of our evolutionary immunity.
Many of the listeners didn’t wait for the end of the program to react.
Near the end of the program, panic ensued. Police departments and newspaper offices were swamped with phone calls. People across the country, especially in the northeast, fled their homes or loaded their weapons to defend themselves. Some asked authorities how to flee the city or how they could protect themselves from alien gas attacks.
In a few places, people reported that they could see the aliens. This was simply a misidentification of other events such as an isolated coincidental power failure or telephone outage. But some historians estimated that still about two million people were completely frightened.
It took until the next day, Halloween, to restore order in many towns.
Below is a short newsreel showing Orson Wells answering questions about his radio broadcast the next day. It was supposed to be an apology, but sounds more as if he were surprised by some listeners’ lack of sophistication. After all, the novel had been published 40 years earlier. Welles even said that, “it was our thought that perhaps people might be bored or annoyed at hearing a tale so improbable.”

So, how did Orson Welles fool so many listeners?
Welles’ formula to fool the public was simple. (1) Have a routine, regularly scheduled broadcast, Mercury Theatre, (2) interrupt it with breaking news, (3) cut to a live reporter on the scene, (4) have experts comment on the situation, and (5) follow up with alarming news bulletins. To all this was added the fact that Mercury Theatre had no commercial breaks.
Only three times did Welles announce that the program was a theatrical production and not a real news story. And these were carefully planned to maximize effect. The first time was a short introduction at the start. But many people didn’t hear the introduction. They were tuned to the more popular “Chase and Sanborn Hour” on a rival network that was featuring Edgar Bergen and his dummy Charlie McCarthy. Welles knew that the competing program would go to a musical interlude about 10 minutes into the show and listeners might take this opportunity to search around the dial. There was a good chance they would find the Mercury Theatre program, and would never have heard the first disclaimer.
A second disclaimer was purposely delayed until about 40 minutes into the 60 minute play. By that time, a large number of listeners could have realistically believed that the events being portrayed were actually happening. The final disclaimer was at the conclusion of the program, but by then the ruse was over.
Why did people believe such a fantastic story?
Our course the clever presentation was the primary reason but beyond that there were three basic psychological/cultural reasons. All three have become well established lessons about contemporary culture.
Political or economic crisis makes people edgy and ready to believe almost anything, especially bad news.
When a peoples’ stress level is high, they are more ready to believe what they hear, especially from normally trusted sources. In 1938, the world was on the brink of World War II. Fear of invasion by totalitarian forces was real to most Americans. Some listeners heard only that bombs were falling and assumed they were coming from Hitler.
Mass hysteria can be self-sustaining and spreads rapidly.
The phenomenon of mass hysteria, fueled by the power of imagination, grows rapidly. Orson Welles knew how to use radio’s imaginative possibilities, and he was a master at blurring the lines between fiction and reality. Many believed that they heard the invaders were German, not Martian.
At that time dangers were in fact lurking all around. It was a short step to have them materialize from outer space. No special effects were needed, only the listeners imagination. Panicked listeners packed roads, hid in cellars, and loaded their guns.
People tend to be too trusting of electronic mass media.    
People tend to be too trusting of what is presented to them via mass communications. Media has established itself as a source of truth far beyond its actual performance. For rural listeners, who depended on radio as their link to the outside world, the effect was even stronger.
The hoax worked, in part, because the broadcast simulated how radio really worked in an emergency. Welles had revealed how the power of mass communications could be used to create illusions and manipulate the public.
Afterward, newspapers sought to prove a point about the irresponsibility of radio broadcasts. This was quite hypocritical in the age of “yellow journalism.” Some historians believed it was print media’s revenge for being scooped by radio so many times.
The Aftermath
Years later Orson Welles appeared on British television explaining his motivations and intentions for the broadcast. He also admits that he was not completely innocent of trying to manipulate the public. He expresses his concern and warns that people should not take whatever radio and television tells them without question.

In 1940, two years after the Mercury Theatre’s production, Orson Welles and author H.G. Wells met in San Antonio and were interviewed together on the radio. Author Wells was 74 years old, director Welles was 25. They not only discussed “The War of the Worlds” but also the upcoming “Citizen Kane.” Below is a rarely heard recording of that interview.

“The War of the Worlds” has been resurrected again through the years. Sometimes in film and sometimes on the stage. It was made into its first feature film in 1953. The trailer for the 1953 Film is below.

In 2005, a major project was released by Steven Spielberg that used state-of-the-art special effects. The funny thing is, even with their superior technical effects, the public reacted to both films with much less apprehension than they did to the 1938 radio broadcast. Have we become cynical or bored with threats from the skies? Or, have they become a too real news story in the post 9-11 world?
Listen to the 1938 Broadcast
It’s still fascinating to listen to. Even though the music and manner of speech now seems a bit dated, you can still sense how listeners could have reacted, as many did, to the unfolding story.

There are a lot of recordings of the 1938 broadcast available on youtube.com. Most have commentary interspersed between the story’s scenes. To get a sense of the intended impact, listen to a video that just plays it straight through without comment. Also, try turning the lights out and your monitor off for maximum effect.
Below is the best I have found.

On the 50th Anniversary of the broadcast, the folks in Grover’s Mills erected a plaque to commemorate the event that put their town “on the map.”

Sunday, October 23, 2011

Living and Dying In The Magic Kingdom: The Ghosts of Disneyland

Disneyland visitors expect to see “ghosts” when they line up to enter the Haunted Mansion. But there are many reports of spirits dwelling in other areas of the park as well. Disneyland is loaded with ghosts.
Ghost hunters claim that this is because so many people have either died while at the park or were former employees who died elsewhere but still haunt their favorite places. Some ghosts are adults, some are children. A few of the children died outside of Disneyland but their ashes were spread around the park by their families, so the spirits linger as post mortem guests.
Some ghosts appear so regularly that they have been given names, such as the Tuxedo Man, Hatbox Ghost, Disco Dolly, George, The Man With the Cane, and Mr. One Way.
We have gathered together here some of the stories circulating about the haunting of Disneyland. Enjoy, and Happy Halloween.
Main Street
Reports continue to be made that a ghost lives on the second floor of the Main Street Firehouse. Walt Disney had an apartment in that very place from the early days of Disneyland up until he died in 1966. One story is that an employee was dusting the apartment (after Walt’s death) and when finished, turned the lights out and went downstairs. Looking up, she noticed that the lights were still on. She returned and turned them off. After she reached the first floor, she saw that the lights were back on again. Taking her third trip up to the apartment, she heard a voice from an unknown source saying, “Don’t forget, I am still here.” It is said that employees now leave the lights on all the time as a tribute. Do you think Walt is still there?
The Christmas Shop is said to have a 19th Century portrait of a young woman hanging on the wall. Her pleasant facial expression transforms into a frown if the breeze changes near to her. But aren’t portraits with changing expressions used all over Disneyland?
The stockroom above “The Emporium” on Main Street is believed to be haunted as well. Employees have seen flashes of light and heard footsteps when no one is around.
The Haunted Mansion (naturally . . . uh we mean unnaturally)
At least three or four ghosts are believed to be permanent residents of the Haunted Mansion, and wander around New Orleans Square.
Even before Disneyland was built, a man piloting a small plane in the 1940’s crashed right where the Haunted Mansion excavation began in 1962. His ghost is said to have settled into the Mansion. He is referred to by employees as the “Man With the Cane” and often seen late at night after closing.
The ghost video below may not be the “Man With the Cane” but it was recorded (allegedly) on Disneyland security cameras near the mansion in New Orleans Square after park closure. The entity walks out of the Haunted Mansion, through the closed gates, and along the waterfront.

In the ride itself, more strange things unfold. During the walking portion of the attraction, some people have seen figures walk up to a portrait, stop, and then vanish before their eyes.
Some visitors have heard footsteps on the false floor behind the car loading area and have been touched on the face by unseen hands.
On “Grad Nights” in June, the Park is turned over to graduating high school seniors. One spirit is said to be that of a teenage boy who stepped out of the “Doombuggy” car in the “Séance Circle” on a grad night and fell fifteen feet to his death with a broken neck. Since then, strange sounds come from the walls along with very cold spots and occasional gusts of breeze. But isn’t that a feature of the ride?
The “Séance Circle” itself is thought to be haunted. A sound engineer setting up equipment in the area before the ride was opened to the public, heard music coming from behind a wall that had been completed. He thought that another workman had left a radio playing which had been accidently walled up. After several days, the music never ended and no announcer ever spoke. The source could never be found so additional insulation was added to diminish the sounds. But some think they still hear the music today.
The spirit called the “Tuxedo Man” (dressed in a tuxedo) appears near the end of the ride where he sporadically appears in the mirrors used to show you the “hitchhiking ghost” characters. Park personnel claim there is no character of the description as reported by visitors.
In the area where people disembark from the ride, attendants can look into a mirror mounted above them so see newly arriving cars behind them. Several attendants, who have since quit their job, have seen a man dressed in a tuxedo in the mirror but when they turn around, he is gone. He touched the shoulder of at least one employee, and pulled the hair of several guests. Some think he might be the ghost of a man who had a heart attack on the ride in August of 1970 and died instantly.
Also near the end of the ride, people have reported that the ghost of a small boy sits on the floor crying. Allegedly, the mother of a dead child wanted to spread his ashes in the ride. Disney officials declined her request. So she secretly scattered the boy’s ashes throughout the mansion. People interpret the crying as the boy not wanting his remains left in the ride.
Something very nasty is thought to reside in the attic just before you exit the building. Witnesses report that hair was pulled when no one was in view. Others have been touched on the back by a hand extending from and empty car.
The “Hatbox Ghost” is another named spirit in the Haunted Mansion. His character was an original man-made illusion; but it was removed in 1969 (the first year of the attraction). Many guests and employees believe that a ghost in the form of the original Hatbox Ghost stills walks through the attraction. The video below is an attempt to show that the spirit known as the “Hatbox Ghost” still wanders through the Haunted Mansion.

Pirates of the Caribbean and New Orleans Square
Another case of ashes being scattered around an attraction has resulted in the presence of a ghost of a small boy who died of cancer. This spirit is a happy, smiling one. During test runs of empty boats when visitors are not around, the boy’s lone ghost has been seen by maintenance personnel on security cameras.
A man called George was working to build the Pirates ride when he died by accident at the site during construction. He was allegedly hit by a beam. Many believe his ghost still resides within the underground areas. It is rumored that employees greet him at the start of their shift and bid him fair well at the end. If “George” is not respected, the ride will suspiciously shut down.
The “Disney Gallery” on the second level above the Pirates of the Caribbean is said to be haunted by the spirits of Walt, his wife Lillian, and a mysterious lady called just Mary.
Club 33, a private dining room near the entrance to the Blue Bayou Restaurant is also said to be haunted.
Tom Sawyer’s Island
Three boys have drowned in the Rivers of America. It is reported that ghosts of two of the boys still roam the island. They have been seen running across the suspension bridge that connects to the Pirates’ Lair. The ghost of a third boy was a result of his death by drowning in 1973 while trying to swim the river after missing the last raft from the island. They are only present when the park is closed.

Another ghost has been reported seen in the riggings of the sailing ship Columbia that circles Tom Sawyer’s Island.
Big Thunder Mountain Path
This pathway circles around behind the Big Thunder Mountain Railway ride. It connects Frontierland with Fantasyland. Sitting on a bench along the path, the ghost of an old man has been seen waiting and watching. Disneyland employees avoid this area at night.

The Matterhorn
The female ghost referred to as “Disco Dolly” is said to have haunted the Matterhorn ride for over 25 years. In 1984, Dolly Young, age 48, along with her children were riding the bobsleds. Worried about them, she undid her seat belt to check on them when the ride started a downward turn. Dolly was thrown from her seat and landed in the path of the following bobsled. She was crushed to death. Now she rides the Matterhorn continually.

Space Mountain
Another ghost has been nicknamed by the ride operators. This time a “Mr. OneWay” will appear to ride in the cars with empty seats. He vanishes before the ride ends however. During the early 1970’s, a man got out of a car during the early part of the ride. He tried to walk back to the starting point but was struck by another car or fell to his death. This is Mr. One Way who is also believed to hang out in the women’s locker room. He has been seen as a large man with red hair and a flushed face.

Tomorrowland People Mover (closed in 1995)
The People Mover was an elevated transit system where guests ride small open cars around Tomorrowland. In 1967, Ricky Lee Yama, age 17, of Hawthorne, CA, was playing a game that teenagers enjoyed. He jumped out of one moving car to switch to another, got caught in the pulling mechanism and was dragged under the car. He grabbed desperately at his girlfriend’s long blonde hair to save himself but failed. He was crushed to death by a ride that travels 2 miles per hour. Today, many girls with long blonde hair sometimes feel an unseen presence pull at their hair.
Menacing cold spots appear then vanish all over Tomorrowland. Below is very short video claimed by the photographer to be the ghost of Walt Disney hurrying through Tomorrowland at dark. 

It’s A Small World
This gentle little ride has three ghosts. They are all former park workers who have died. They loved the attraction and their ghosts continue to hang around. Lights turn themselves on and off, and the dolls have moved without power.

Peter Pan’s Flight
There is a story that says that this ride in Fantasyland is haunted by two ghosts, a couple. The man is tall and bald; the woman has a lot of hair. They always stand together, but only at the end of the line. Look for them if you are near the back of the line.

M. I. C. . .  K. E. Y. . .  M. O. U. S. E. -  M. I. C. . .  K. E. Y. . .  G. H. O. S. T.

Friday, October 21, 2011

No Reservations: Passengers and Crew Who Did Not Sail With the Titanic

On April 14th of next year, the one hundredth anniversary of the sinking of the Titanic will be observed.  The tragedy took 1,517 lives. Many famous American families were affected - the Astor’s, the Guggenheim’s, the Strauss’, and of course Molly Brown. But what about people who were supposed to sail on the ship, but didn’t?
For reasons of business, health or just an uncomfortable sensation, 55 passengers cancelled their bookings. Eighteen of them planning to board at Queensland surrendered their reservations due to a “bad feeling” about the ship. Still, on April 10th 1,320 passengers were aboard as the Titanic left the dock.

Here are the stories of some the people who did NOT sail on that day.

Saved by Drink ?

The three Slade brothers, crewmen of the Titanic, were making the rounds of local Southampton’s pubs before reporting to the ship. They later admitted to drinking a little too much. Eventually they regained control of their faculties, just in time to rush to the departing ship. An angry duty officer on the deck refused to lower the gangway to let them board. All three lived to tell the tale.

Thomas Hart, a ship’s fireman, after signing in for the voyage but before the Titanic departed had returned to shore, and got drunk. While he was unconscious, his ID had been stolen. Another person boarded in his place bearing Hart’s name and producing appropriate credentials. When he awakened the ship was gone. He wandered around for nearly three weeks, too ashamed to return home and his aged mother. Hart was listed as lost at sea devastating his mom. Later he admitted to authorities that he had lost his ID while he was drunk in a pub. Nobody will ever know who the name of the man who used Hart’s identification.
A Victim of Seniority

At Belfast, David Blair was transferred as the Second Officer from the Oceanic to the Titanic for its maiden voyage. Henry Wilde, the Chief Officer of the Olympic, who was more familiar with the new class of White Star ships and a higher ranking officer was then sent to replace Blair at Southampton. A reluctant and disappointed Blair disembarked and returned to the Oceanic. It saved his life, while Wilde perished.

What is it about Suite B52-54-56?

This was an expense suite of rooms with its own private promenade deck, and an interesting tale to tell. American steel tycoon, Henry Clay Frick of Pittsburgh, booked passage on the Titanic for himself and his wife two months before sailing in Suite B52-54-56. Just prior to boarding, he relinquished his tickets because his wife had sprained her ankle on a shore excursion. They took a later ship.

No problem. The suite was subsequently taken by financier J.P. Morgan, the owner of the White Star Line and the Titanic. But Morgan’s business negotiations in England lengthened and he, too, gave up his reservation.

The booking was then taken by wealthy Americans Mr. and Mrs. Horace Harding. He was a financier and director of the New York Municipal Railway System. The couple wanted an earlier sailing date so they also cancelled and booked passage on the Mauretania instead.
Ultimately, J Bruce Ismay, the CEO of the White Star Line (owner of the Titanic), took the suite - but he survived the disaster. So the suite wasn’t bad luck after all.

Lost Luggage

The socialite George W. Vanderbilt and his wife were all set to sail on the Titanic but his wife’s sister, Susan Dressler, warned him not to take the trip as “so many things can go wrong on a maiden voyage.” Their luggage had already been delivered to the ship by his valet, Frederick Wheeler, however and there was no time to remove it. Vanderbilt and his wife sailed on the Olympic arriving in New York before the Titanic sunk. The Vanderbilt’s lived on but their luggage, and their servant, was lost.

Political Protocol

Robert Bacon, the U.S. Ambassador to France, reserved passage on the Titanic for himself, his wife and daughter. His appointment had just concluded and they were returning home. But the new Ambassador, Myron Hendrick, had been delayed in his arrival. Bacon family had to remain in Europe at little longer before sailing on the France on April 20th. They were aware of the fate of the Titanic before they departed. Robert Bacon later became the Secretary of State under Theodore Roosevelt. The delayed departure became a fortunate development for him for several reasons.

Legal Delays

American James O’Brien and his wife were in Ireland to settle a lawsuit. The case’s conclusion was delayed and so their reservation was cancelled. They switched to a later departing ship. On her 100th Birthday (in 1972), Mrs. O’Brien said that her 38 grandchildren and great grandchildren were grateful for the change.

Divine Intervention

Four senior clergymen from England, including the Archbishop of Liverpool, were headed to New York to speak at an international conference all booking aboard the Titanic. Among them, the Vicar of St. Paul’s in London, J. Stuart Holden, had to cancel his reservation due to his wife’s illness. The other three decided to also postpone their passage and everyone changed to another ship. They all expressed gratitude to God for this miraculous escape.
Kisses for all

Milton S. Hershey, chocolate mogul, and his wife were booked for the passage on the Titanic but due to her illness, they decided to wait until a later date and cancelled their reservation. They sailed on the Amerika instead. That was lucky for all candy lovers.

Psychic Forebodings

Mr. and Mrs. E.W. Bill, wealthy Philadelphians, were really looking forward to sailing on the Titanic. But two days before the departure date, Mrs. Bill had a dream that the Titanic had wrecked. They cancelled their tickets the next morning.
And Finally (someone who didn’t heed the warning)

Walter Harris was travelling to America and had made reservations aboard the Philadelphia. The Philadelphia’s sailing was abruptly cancelled due to a coal strike so he transferred to the Titanic. Before the sailing date, Harris visited some friends locally. Among the group was a lady who practiced palm reading. She did not like what she saw on Harris’ hand at all but wouldn’t say why. Harris’ little son asked her, “Is Daddy going to drown?” . . . He did.

"Never be afraid to try something new. Remember, amateurs built the ark. Professionals built the Titanic." (unknown)

Monday, October 17, 2011

The Civil War History of the 57th Indiana (#5 of 52)

Marching to Shiloh
“Early on the morning of March 29th, 1862, our brigade was in line, ready for the long-expected move. Heretofore we had marched by brigades, but this morning the whole of the 6th division, consisting of three brigades of infantry, one regiment of cavalry, and several batteries of artillery, were ordered to move together. In the rear of the division was a battery of heavy siege-guns, each piece and caisson being drawn by ten horses. Immediately in the rear of the artillery were the trains, in the following order: First, wagons belonging to division headquarters; second, baggage wagons of the different brigades, in the order in which they marched; third, supply and ammunition trains for the division, consisting of two or three hundred wagons. Thus it will be seen that the troops of our division, alone, with their trains, will occupy a road several miles in length.
“The country through which we were now traveling was delightful. Some of the finest scenery in the southern states may be found in Middle Tennessee. Fields, orchards, and meadows were covered with the verdure of early spring. Peace and plenty reigned on every hand; and were it not for the warlike columns, dressed in blue, moving slowly along the road, one could hardly believe that the desolating cloud of war was even then hovering over this beautiful scenery.
“As the different brigades arrive upon the campground they are shown to their camps by the division commander, or members of his staff, and the regiments by commanders of the brigades, until all have been assigned a stopping place for the night.
“Now a lively scene occurs - the bustle of men, as they hurry to and fro, unloading wagons, pitching tents, carrying wood and water, building fires, grinding coffee; loud talking, neighing of horses, braying of mules, and, above all, the sharp, shrill notes of the cavalry or artillerymen’s bugles, as they sound the call to ‘water and feed’ ring out upon the gentle evening air, with a strange and mingled chorus.
“At night the encampment is brightened by the hundreds of camp fires and lights in the tents, until, from brigade headquarters, comes the sound of the ‘tattoo’ which is immediately taken up by the bugler in each regiment and battery. Half an hour later, ‘taps’ are sounded, lights are put out, and all is still.
“We are up early on Sunday morning preparing for the march. The brigade which yesterday marched in front today takes the rear. The entire division is on the road by 7 o’clock, and by noon we have traveled as far as all day yesterday. Then the dust and heat become oppressive. Each man carries from forty to fifty pounds. As the march continues, the men commence to lighten their loads by throwing away all surplus clothing. Bed-quilts, blankets, and even overcoats, are thrown aside, with every article, not essentially necessary to be carried. The pleasant march of the morning becomes a weary and harassing toil long before the close of day. It is no longer the mud that hinders us, but marching under heavy loads, over the stony pike, with blistered feet, and the blinding dust which almost stops our breathing.”
(Middle Tennessee, Fourth week of March, 1862)

Excerpts taken from “Annals of the Fifty-Seventh Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry: Marches, Battles, and Incidents of Army Life” written by Asbury L. Kerwood immediately after the war.