THE UNFOLDING JOURNEY is a new blog written in association with Legacy Genealogy.

This blog is a blend of disciplines that reveal the rich texture of culture and history that surrounded your ancestors' lives, as well as your own. We will take you beyond just the names, dates, and places to give you the "back story" for the reasons your ancestors thought what they thought and did what they did. We invite you to also visit us at the Legacy Genealogy facebook page at http://facebook.com/legacygenealogy

Saturday, December 29, 2012

The Civil War History of the 57th Indiana (#16)

The Battle of Stones River, Tennessee
“Before the dawn of day, on the morning of the memorable 31st of December, 1862, the troops of our division had been aroused from their slumbers on the damp ground, and were cooking, many of them, their last meal by the dimly burning camp fires. A heavy fog hung like a pall around us, and completely hid from our view the lines of the enemy. The morning was chilly and the men stood shivering in the cold, impatiently waiting the moment for action.

“Early in the morning, the 57th Indiana moved forward and occupied a position at the front; the 15th Indiana on the left, and the 40th Indiana and the 97th Ohio on the rear line. The entire line covering our brigade was in charge of Lt. Colonel Lennard, who was at the front at the time of the attack, and directed the movements of our advanced companies. As the dense cloud of fog commenced rising, and the genial rays of the morning sun came pouring through, the commanding general was seen to make his appearance in the rear of our line, deliver a few words to his subordinates, and then gallop off toward the right, followed by his escort.

“Immediately there is activity among the troops. Commanders of the brigades, regiments, and companies take their places and the command ‘attention!’ is repeated from one to the other until it reaches the men, who spring to their places in line. Colors are unfurled, batteries are limbered, and in less time than it has required describing their movements, the forces are ready for action.

“There is almost profound quiet when the order to advance was given. We had not moved forward more than twenty or thirty paces when the pattering sound of muskets could be heard distinctly on the right. Instantly it increased to sharp volleys, and in a moment it was mingled with yells, which we knew were not from our own men.

“Soon a stream of demoralized soldiers and non-combatants emerged from the woods on the right and broke to the rear. They were quickly followed by ambulances, battery caissons, and loose horses until there was one dense mass of commotion. Closely following after the rabble that first commenced leaving the field, came hundreds of soldiers rushing by in confused masses and, to appearances, entirely destitute of all regard for anything save their own personal safety. Now and then we could see an officer or soldier who was using all his efforts to induce his comrades to halt and to reform their lines. But all was of no avail.

“The line composed of the 57th and 15th Indiana was now withdrawn to the belt of timber in our rear. It seemed that our line, which had thus far remained firm, must soon be enveloped in surging waves of confusion that rolled around us. ‘What regiment was that?’ said Col. Hines, as one of the retreating battalions was hurrying on by. ‘15th Kentucky,’ was shouted from their ranks, and they hastened onward with increasing steps.’ I want every man in MY regiment to stay with ME, and when I run then I want you to run,’ continued the colonel, as he viewed the heart-sickening scene which was going on around us. Not a man stirred from his place in the ranks of the 57th. They only waited the moment for action with breathless suspense. But where are our generals? Where now is our commander-in-chief? We could not believe that no one could bring order out of such as scene as this.

“Already the storm of battle was bursting around us. Brave men were fighting hand to hand with the overpowering force of the enemy. Rebel shells and bullets were whistling and whizzing around, and our only hope was to secure and hold a position. Soon a battery got into position and commenced shelling the advancing forces of the enemy. The 57th moved to the corner of the woods and laid down near the battery to await the onset of the enemy who were re-massing their infantry. A constant sheet of fire streamed from the mouth of our guns, and in vain the rebels rushed forward with maddened fury. But all their mad attempts were fruitless, and they finally retired.

“‘Ah, I mow’d ‘em, I mor’n mow’d ‘em,’ said Capt. Cox. ‘I guess them fellows don’t want my battery as bad as they did. If I had ammunition I could keep all the rebels back that could come before us.’ Already the battery had fired sixteen hundred rounds; but their supply was now exhausted, and the brave Cox was enraged at the thought of being compelled to remain silent at the next rebel onset. The colonel told him that he thought the infantry could hold them back if they should come before he could get a new supply of ammunition.

“Events were transpiring further to our right at the same time that we were so successful in checking the advances of the enemy in our own front. Preparations were made to repel the advance of the enemy from among the dense thickets. But coming upon our troops in the midst of a thick fog and with the regiments massed in columns, the enemy succeeded in making a complete surprise, capturing many of our men and driving the others in confusion from the field. They were jubilant with the victory so easily won; and well might the rebel masses move forward confident that the entire field would soon be in their possession, and the Army of the Cumberland either surrendered or commence a demoralizing retreat toward Nashville. But the victory, or what appeared as such to them, was only momentary. Every cannon, musket, and rifle on our hastily formed lines, contained a deadly missile.

“All was quiet along our lines as the enemy’s column emerged from a cedar thicket into the open ground. Forward came the rebel lines in splendid order; marching with hot haste to consummate their daring purpose and crush or little band. A sheet of deadly flame burst forth from the line of muskets, carrying death and destruction in its pathway. ‘Now let the line advance,’ said General Rosecrans. Before the enemy had time to recover from the shock, and with a cheer, we sprang forward on the charge, driving the enemy back to their shelter in the forest. The 57th was moved forward a short distance into the open ground where we laid down to avoid the rebel shells which were coming thick and fast from the batteries of the enemy. Hardly had the regiment reached their new position when a shell entered the ranks of Company F and tore off the right arm of one of the men, then exploded under him, turning him upside down, and shattering one of his legs. The wounded man was carried a short distance to the rear and laid in the woods. Medical assistance, which might have saved his life, was far beyond our reach, and the brave fellow soon after died.

“Bending low to shelter ourselves as much as possible, and also to hide our movements, the line moved slowly forward. The whole regiment now laid down in a cotton field and orders were given for no one to fire until the rebel line advanced so close that the entire regiment could deliver a destructive volley. Many were the petitions of the men to be allowed to fire on them, but the colonel was determined in his purpose and repeated the order for every gun to be kept silent until the order to fire was given by him. Closer still the columns approached, raised their well known yell and dashed forward. Our colonel commanded ‘attention! ready! FIRE!’ A deadly volley of musketry was poured into them. When the cloud of smoke was lifted, the disordered and crippled foe was rushing backwards, and the spot where they met our murderous reception was covered with their dead or disabled comrades. No more effective volley was delivered during that eventful day than the first one from the ranks of the 57th Indiana.

“Temporary lulls in the fierce engagements were succeeded by the renewal of the struggle with redoubled fury. Occasionally during the rest of the afternoon, our regiment made some movement of but a few rods and then resumed its position on the ground, as did all the troops on the field. On our part of the field we had no shelter except such as could be afforded by taking advantage of the ground. Slowly the hours passed as we lay on the cold earth, the air filled with whizzing shells or solid shot. We were anxious for night to come, for the progress of events plainly told us that night alone would put an end to the conflict.

“Eventually the regiment was ordered to the rear. As the regiment was moving, a rebel shell struck a man in Company D in the back, and passed through his body, exploding just as he fell upon it, blowing him almost to atoms. A portion of his arms were blown twenty or thirty feet into the air.

“Information was received that the enemy was preparing for one more powerful effort to drive us from our position. ‘They are bringing up their last reserve,’ said Col. Lennard, who was sitting on his horse and viewing their movements. ‘If we can only hold them this time, the day is ours.’

The 15th and 57th were now ordered to meet the advancing columns, by a counter charge. We immediately rose to our feet and moved forward on the double-quick, at the same time delivering a sharp volley into the rebels, hundreds of whom threw down their arms while others retreated in disorder. When the enemy was repulsed, we laid down again in our places, and the artillery commenced firing over our heads. In a few minutes, the fire of not less than eighteen pieces of artillery was concentrated upon our two regiments. We had advanced so far that we were then exactly in their range.

“Until now, Col. Hines had remained seated upon his horse, and although he made several very narrow escapes, he was, strangely enough, still unhurt. Now he became a fair target for the guns of the enemy and they commenced shooting at him, he being the only member of the regiment in the enemy’s view. He was repeatedly urged to dismount to all of which he replied, I’m not going to be hit; don’t be alarmed about me.’ Presently a shell came so near that it almost grazed him. ‘Well, if that’s the way they are going to shoot, I’ll get down,’ said he; and just as he touched the ground another passed just above the saddle, which would have torn him to pieces had he remained one moment longer. He now stood a few minutes beside the horse, when a shell struck him just above the left knee, which threw him to the ground in an instant. Many at first supposed he was killed, but he soon recovered his self-possession. When the storm of battle was raging, with confusion, demoralization, and defeat staring us in the face, it was that calmness and undaunted bravery of our commander shown forth in all its splendor.

“The enemy, exasperated by the failure of the last effort to drive us from our position, together with the loss of a large number of their men, now commenced a fire from their artillery, which even surpassed all their previous efforts. An almost uninterrupted storm of iron hail was poured upon and around us. The 15th had now commenced moving back, and we were left all alone. In response to every rebel missile that came whizzing over us, our guns sent a quick reply. With Capt. Stidham now in command of the left wing, the regiment was finally withdrawn to a place of safety. The continued fire of the rebel artillery and the presence of so many new recruits increased the disorder until we had retired beyond reach of imminent danger. For ten long hours we had been under deadly fire, had both our field officers and several company officers severely wounded; and nearly one hundred men killed, wounded, and captured.

“As night came on, the roar of battle died away and the two armies, worn out with hard fighting and heavy losses, welcomed the darkness that invited a cessation of the bloody conflict. Until near morning fires were not allowed, and during a considerable portion of the night, we were obliged to stand in line of battle. Some men had mingled freely with the enemy during the night, on the ground where the killed and wounded of both armies lay. Some of the members of our regiment were rescued from the place where they laid during the day. Slowly dragged the weary hours until morning when the order was received to move. Marching some three quarters of a mile to the rear, our arms were again stacked and large rail-fires built, at which we warmed ourselves and cooked our breakfast.

“The terrible struggle of the previous day had satisfied the enemy that we could and would fight, and though they had well nigh succeeded in their attempt to take us unawares, there were still men to contest their advances toward Nashville. The last day of 1862 will long be remembered by the men who composed the Army of the Cumberland.”

(Tennessee, December, 1862)

Excerpts taken from “Annals of the Fifty-Seventh Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry: Marches, Battles, and Incidents of Army Life” written by Asbury L. Kerwood immediately after the war.

Wednesday, December 26, 2012


Yes, you’re right “Macaroni.” Two hundred years ago this word was spelled “maccaroni” from the Italian word “maccherone” meaning a fool. Later in England it became to mean a foolish person who displays an excess of foreign fashion; which may have become the origin of the “Yankee Doodle” lyrics.

In both Europe and America, the word “maccaroni” represented ALL pasta, not just the short curved tubes we know today.

But who popularized pasta dishes in America? This might surprise you, but it may have been none other than Thomas Jefferson. While he was the U.S. Minister to France from 1785 to 1789, Jefferson travelled extensively throughout France and northern Italy. He became enamored with pasta in all its forms. He learned how to make “maccaroni,” and also Parmesan cheese. Jefferson may have become America’s father of “mac and cheese” to the delight of millions of today’s children.  

He decided to purchase a machine to make pasta but couldn’t find one to suit his needs. So after returning to Monticello with four crates of Semola four, Jefferson designed his own “Maccaroni Machine” to keep him supplied with noodles. He probably was not the first to bring macaroni back to America, but was certainly the most influential person to do so,

Here, in his own words is Jefferson’s instructions on how to use his “Maccaroni Machine” (pictured below):

“The best Maccaroni in Italy is made with a particular sort of flour called Semola, in Naples. But in almost every shop a different sort of flour is commonly used; for, provided the flour be of a good quality, & not ground extremely fine, it will always do very well. A paste is made with flour, water & less yeast than is used for making bread.

“This paste is then put, by a little at a time, into a round iron box (ABC). The under part of which is perforated with holes, through which the paste, when pressed by the screw (DEF), comes out, and forms the Maccaroni (ggg) which, when sufficiently long, are cut & spread to dry, the screw is turned by a lever inserted into the hole (K), of which there are 4 or 6. It is evident that on turning the screw one way, the cylindrical part F, which fits the iron box or mortar perfect well, must press upon the paste and must force it out of the holes. There is a set of plates which may be changed at will, with holes of different shapes & sizes for the different sorts of Maccaroni.” (Thomas Jefferson)

Not everyone was as thrilled with pasta as was Thomas Jefferson however. Here is a first-hand review of Jefferson’s pasta by William Cutler and his wife after a dinner at Monticello in 1802:

“Dined at the President’s. Dinner not as elegant as when we dined before. (Among other dishes) a pie called maccaroni , which appeared to be a rich crust filled with the strillions of onions, or shallots, which I took it to be, tasted very strong, and NOT AGREEABLE. Mr. Lewis (the explorer Meriwether Lewis) told me there were none in it; it was an Italian dish, and what appeared like onions was made of flour and butter, with particularly strong liquor mixed with them.”

Notwithstanding the above critique, Thomas Jefferson is credited with popularizing pasta in the early history of America.

Thanks to monticello.org (Jefferson’s Monticello) and umuc.edu (University of Maryland, Italian Studies).

Saturday, December 22, 2012


Today, more than ever, people are on the move to new countries, and new cultures. They may be motivated to move by political situations, economic conditions, employment, even retirement.

ACCULTURATION is a sociological concept that is defined as the modification of an existing culture, or an individual, as a result of contact with a different culture. It also encompasses the process of becoming assimilated to a new culture. While most of us have experienced some cultural adjustments in our lives (such as adapting to the very strange culture of the younger generation), the people most affected by acculturation are immigrants.

In 1978, Dr. John H. Schumann, of the Department of Applied Linguistics at UCLA, developed a model to explain the acquisition of a second language by immigrants who learned their new tongue in the social environment (rather than in the classroom). His model has been adopted and expanded to study the overall adaptation of immigrants to the culture of their new country. It is known around the world as “Schumann’s Theory of Acculturation.”

Schumann recognizes that there are a number of factors in an immigrant’s acculturation including their pattern of integration, the degree of difference from their original culture, the length of residence in their new country, and their own individual motivation, attitude, and ego. Especially critical is confronting a different language. But there seems to be another significant phenomenon that all immigrants experience - Culture Shock.

CULTURE SHOCK is the anxiety that an individual feels about entering into a new culture. Schumann’s theory states that there is a succession of four “stages” every immigrant goes through between arrival and assimilation. The stages are:

1. The EUPHORIC STAGE (usually lasting 3 to 6 months). Everything about the new culture will be pleasurable and fascinating. The immigrant will view his new country/culture as superior to that which he left. The new immigrant will diligently try to master the new language, and there will be great progress made.

2. The HOSTILE STAGE (generally lasting about 6 months, with variations). Immigrants find themselves becoming antagonistic toward their new host culture. Many will develop depression and even aggression. The individual will try to reconnect with their home culture by watching films, reading, and seeking out the foods of their home culture. Cultural differences will no longer be celebrated. Language study will stall or even decline as the immigrant decides that his own native language is sufficient for most situations. The Hostile Stage is an expression of the confusion of identity that overwhelms the person adjusting to a new culture.

3. The ACCEPTANCE STAGE. This occurs when an immigrant reaches a kind of cultural equilibrium. He accepts the differences between his original culture and that of his new county. Some of the most important symbols of the new country will be accepted by the immigrant and become part of everyday life.

4. The REVERSE CULTURE SHOCK STAGE. Statistics show that a large majority of immigrants will return to their home country either to visit or stay. This surprising stage refers to the fact that a returning person will eagerly share their experiences from the new culture with others in their home country. But they find that the people and country have changed during their absence, and the way the returnee is accepted has been affected. Often the return adjustment is too great to stay for long and many immigrants return to their new host culture again.

Interestingly, Schumann’s research indicates that these four stages of cultural adjustment cannot be avoided. The most an immigrant to hope for is to reduce the time involved with the process.

Sunday, December 16, 2012


Julia Morgan was the First Lady of Architecture on the west coast, maybe in all America. She designed more than 700 buildings in California over her fifty-year career.
She was a diminutive young woman, only five feet tall, with porcelain-china facial features. But Julia was a determined dynamo who would stop at nothing to realize her dreams. A native of San Francisco, born in 1872, she always wanted to be an architect. But the school she chose didn’t offer a degree in architecture. UC Berkeley had only the next closest thing - civil engineering. So in 1894, Julia graduated with a degree in Civil Engineering. She was the first women in the school’s history to be degreed in this discipline.

Two years later, Julia discovered that the prestigious “Ecole des Beaux Arts” in Paris, an academy of fine arts and architectural design, was taking applications. So off she went to France. It turned out to be a two year struggle just to be admitted as they were not yet accepting female students. Eventually they relented. Julia Morgan became the very first female student to graduate from that famous academy across the river from the Louvre.

Julia returned to San Francisco in 1904 as one of the best-educated young architects in the world. She worked for a firm that was designing the new University of California at Berkeley Master Plan. Her contributions included the Hearst Mining Building and the Hearst Greek Theatre.

Then in 1906, the great earthquake struck San Francisco. Among the half-ruined buildings was the famous Fairmont Hotel. Because Julia was one of the very few educated in reinforced-concrete construction (owing to her civil engineering background), she was put in charge of the redesign and repair of this famous landmark.

Because of her close association with the University of California for whom the Hearst family was benefactors, Julia came to know Phoebe Apperson Hearst, the mother of newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst. This led to her first commission in southern California. It was the design of Hearst’s Los Angeles Examiner Building, his L.A. newspaper’s headquarters.

This in turn led to the most significant project of her life. In 1919, William Randolph Hearst chose Julia Morgan to be the principle architect of his “little bungalow on top of a hill” that overlooked San Simeon harbor. This bungalow grew into the grandest mansion in America, popularly known today as “Hearst Castle.” His vision of the estate grew larger with each passing year, and he was guided by the creative work of Julia Morgan. They worked together on it for 22 years. She made over 500 trips to the site supervising the construction of the towers, swimming pools, and even the zoo. Julia also designed Hearst’s 50,000 acre “Wyntoon” estate which included four villas, and early designs for his 1.6 million acre ranch in Mexico.

If that had been the sum of her career’s work, she would have been one of the most remarkable architects in America. But Julia Morgan wanted to give more back to her community. She set about designing purposeful buildings that would contribute to improving the lives of women and girls. With Phoebe Hearst’s support, Julia designed many YWCA facilities in California, Arizona, Utah, and Hawaii. She supervised the design and construction of many buildings on the campus of Mills College in Oakland, a school for women. This included the first reinforced concrete bell tower on the west coast. She also designed the Margaret Carnegie Library and the Ming Quong Home for Chinese Girls, which is now known as the Julia Morgan School for Girls.

She has been honored by the creation of the Julia Morgan Center for the Arts in Berkeley; and in 2008, was inducted posthumously into the California Hall of Fame, Women and the Arts.

If you ever visit the San Francisco Bay area, you will undoubtedly encounter one of the many architectural designs of this amazing woman. Our First Lady of Architecture - Julia Morgan.

Thursday, December 13, 2012


Mankind has been seeing things that he cannot explain since the dawn of time. But since the end of WWII, the phenomena of UFO sightings have increased dramatically, and seem to be concentrated in certain regions of the United States.

There are different levels of UFO sighting activity in various areas. There are many more in the west than in the east (other than Minnesota, Missouri, Illinois, and the Florida panhandle). The most likely states to view (or report, actually) UFO’s are Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Montana, Wyoming, and along the west coast. Surprisingly, UFO reports are least likely in the southeast dispelling the stereotype of rural fishermen sitting in their boats downing Billy Beer and seeing extraterrestrials.

Most reported sightings are in areas away from major cities but there are a few urban areas that have high report rates including Los Angeles, Seattle, Chicago, Phoenix, and San Diego.

It’s not clear whether there are more unidentified aerial events in rural and western areas or whether people there are more disposed to see them.
There are a number of things that justify the higher report rate.

1. Being close to military testing or training sites. The government estimates that one half of all reported UFO sightings in these areas between 1950 and 1970 were either U2 or SR-71 test flights. From 1990 to the present, they believe that most reported were of stealth type military aircraft.

2. Being close to military refueling lanes and special air zones (mostly along the seacoasts).

3. Being in areas where past reported “crash sites” existed like Roswell, NM, and Kecksburg, PA. People simply may be more likely to report what they see.

4. Being in areas that are favorable for viewing satellites and planets such as Venus during the winter months (rural areas).

Regardless of whether sightings can be explained or not, here is where you should go to improve your chances of seeing something that cannot be explained, easily.

The ten STATES with the highest number of filed UFO Reports (in 2000):

New Mexico, 471

Missouri, 469

Colorado, 405

Pennsylvania, 344

Washington, 315

Florida, 259

New Hampshire, 245

Montana, 214

Indiana, 205

North Carolina, 167

(U.S average per state is 124)

The ten COUNTIES with the most filed UFO reports (in 2000):

Saguache Co., Colorado, 284 (1 person in every 35)

Knox Co., Missouri, 94 (1 person in every 103)

Alamosa Co., Colorado, 54 (1 person in every 185)

Wahkiakum Co., Washington, 51 (1 person in every 196)

Lane Co., Kansas, 46 (1 person in every 217)

Duchesne, Utah, 40 (1 person in every 250)

Huerfano, Colorado, 40 (1 person in every 250)

Castilla Co., Colorado, 38 (1 person in every 263)

Mason Co., West Va., 37 (1 person in every 270)

Rio Grande Co., Colorado, 36 (1 person in every 278)

For more information and background, you can “Google” these organizations: The Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS), The Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), and The Computer UFO Network (CUFON).

Friday, December 7, 2012


Dreams have always been important to people.

In ancient times, dreams served several metaphorical or symbolic purposes. They were communications between the gods and man. The Romans and Greeks believed that dreams were a form of prophecy and the interpretation of dreams was deemed of the highest importance. More recently, Sigmund Freud developed the theory that dreams represented repressed longing, and their successful interpretation helped resolve emotional conflicts.

A once prominent neurobiological theory, called “activation synthesis”, says that dreams don’t actually mean anything and that they are merely electrical impulses that pull random thoughts and imagery from our memories. But this is a less than satisfactory conclusion.

Today, among the new breed of evolutionary psychologists, new theories are emerging stating that dreams really do serve an important purpose. New clinical research is trying to determine what real purpose they serve, and how and why we remember our dreams.

A popular current theory is called “threat simulation” which posits that dreaming is an ancient biological defense mechanism. Dreams provide humans (and some other mammals) with an important evolutionary advantage by repeatedly “simulating” potential threatening events. Therefore preparing our neuro-cognitive ability to anticipate and avoid these threats. You don’t have to dream about sinking into quick sand too many times before you know to go around it, and you don’t have to have the actual experience in order to prepare for it.

There are three recently published research studies that have changed the thinking of the psychology profession. Researchers at the University of Rome have examined how we remember our dreams. They believe that the chances of recalling our dreams depend on our brain’s oscillating electrical voltage. They have measured subjects’ brain waves during various stages of sleep. It has been known for years that a person awakened from REM sleep will be more likely to remember their dreams, now they have found that low brain wave frequencies also prompt people to remember their dreams. The conclusion is that the electrical activity we employ while dreaming is the same as when we create memories while we are awake.

Another study conducted at UC Berkeley has confirmed the link between our dreams and our emotions. Reduction in REM sleep, meaning less dreaming, affects our ability to function in complex social situations. A third study has finally resolved where in the brain dreaming occurs. This has been determined by evaluating people who have lost the ability to dream (called Charcot-Wilbrand Syndrome), but show no neurological symptoms, against discovered brain lesions in the visual cortex. Therefore dreams are generated in the physical region of the brain that is associated with emotion and visual memories, when lesions are not present.

These recent studies have demonstrated the possible purpose of dreaming. Dreams help us to resolve (process) our emotions by building and storing memories of them. What we experience in our dreams is not real, but the emotions encountered in them are real. The mechanisms the brain uses to create dreams resolves the negative emotions associated with anxiety. Memories, emotions, and dreams are all intertwined and interrelated.

(The concepts summarized here are adopted from the writings of Sander van der Linden, a doctoral researcher at the London School of Economics and Political Science)